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PIL - Public Interest Litigation

USA 1960

India 1980

Father of PIL - P M Bhagvati

Mother of PIL - Pushpa Kapila Hingorani

First female to have portrait in Supreme Court Library, 2017

Pioneers of PIL

P N Bhagwati

V R Krishna Iyer

1st PIL in India - Husnaira Khatoon Vs State of Bihar

- Trial time to be less than Prison time

- 40,000 prisoners freed

- Right to speedy trial, Article 21



Judicial Review

Power of the courts of a country to examine the actions of the legislative, executive, and administrative arms of the government and to determine whether such actions are consistent with the constitution. Actions judged inconsistent are declared unconstitutional and, therefore, null and void.

1. To Check if there is supremacy of constitution in ay law/ ordinance.

2. Power - Supreme Court and High Court

3. High Court - Laws by state Legislature and ordinances by Governor.

    Supreme Court - All laws and ordinances

4. Under all laws that trigger judicial actions : Schedule 9

Article 13, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 142, 32, 226, 227

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