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Important amendments to the Constitution of India

1st Amendment 1951

- 15(4) Backward classes

- Schedule 9 Land reforms

- 19(2) Restrictions added

(i) Friendly relations

(ii) Public Order

(iii) Investment


10th Amendment, 1961

Schedule I - Dadar Nagar Haveli


12th Amendment, 1961

Schedule I - Goa, Daman and Diu


13th Amendment, 1962

Schedule I, Nagaland


14th Amendment, 1962



22nd Amendment, 1969

Schedule I - Meghalaya


36th Amendment, 1971

Schedule I - Sikkim


42nd Amendment, 1976

Preamble : Socialist, Secular, Integrity Added

Article 39, 39A, 43A, 48A added

Fundamental Right - Article 51A

Schedule - 7

- Weights

- Wild life

- Education, State -> Concurrent

- Justice Administration

- Forests




44th Amendment, 1978

Right to Property Article 31 Removed

Article 19(1)(f) Removed

Article 300A added



Internal disturbance -Removed

Armed Rebellion - Added

Parliamentary approval in 2 Months (1 Month condition changed)

Simple Majority removed and Special Majority introduced

Lok Sabha Provision removed and Lok Sabha + Rajya Sabha introduced

President provision removed and President + Lok Sabha introduced


52nd Amendment, 1985

Anti Defection, Schedule 10

61st Amendment




61st Amendment, 1989

Lowered the voting age of elections to the Lok Sabha and to the Legislative Assemblies of States from 21 years to 18 years


73rd Amendment, 1992

Schedule II

Part 9


74th Amendment, 1992

Schedule 12

Part 9A

234P to 243ZG


77th Amendment, 1995

Article 16(4A) Promotion of SC & ST


86th Amendment 2002

Fundamental Right 21A- 6-14

Right of Children to free and compulsory education Act, 2009

DPSP - 45 0-6

Fundamental Rights 51A(k) 6-14


93rd Amendment, 2005


Educational institutions quashed a Judgment denying reservation in Private Education.


99th Amendment, 2014

Collegiums System formed to NJAC

Article 124A, 124B, 124C

Later quashed by Supreme Court in Supreme Court Advocate on Record Association Vs Union of India


101st Amendment, 2016

Goods and Services Tax

Article 246A - Special Law for GST

Article 269A- Interstate Trade or Commerce GST

Article 279A Creation of GST Council


102nd Amendment, 2018

National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC)

Article 338B, 342A


103rd Amendment, 2019

10% Reservation for Economically Weaker Section


104th Amendment 2021

 Removed Reserved seat of Anglo Indian Community

extended the deadline for the cessation of seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and states assemblies from Seventy years to Eighty


Other Amendments for languages to Schedule 8

21st Amendment, 1967: Sindhi

71st Amendment, 1992: Nepali, Konkani, Manipuri

92nd Amendment, 2005: Bodo, Sarthali, Maithili, Dogri

96th Amendment, 2011: Oriya -> Odiya

Note for LLB Entrance Examinations

Muslim Law

Muslim Law in brief

Nikah- Muslim Marriage Conditions

Talaq - Muslim Divorce Law

Hindu Law

Hindu Marriage Act in Brief

Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act 1956

Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act 1956

Hindu Succession Act 1956 Notes

Special Marriage Act 1954 Notes

Historic Development of Law in India

Constitution of India

Preamble of the Constitution of India

Fundamental Rights in Constitution of India

Article 32 Remedies for enforcement of rights

Directive Principles of State Policy

Fundamental Duties

Executive, Judiciary, President, VP

Extent of Powers of Union, Supreme Court etc

State Judiciary, High Court, Lower Courts

Parliament, Council of states, house of people

Introduction and passing bills, budget etc

State Legislature, Composition, duration

Bills, Money Bill, Finance Bill, Proceedings

Emergency - National, State, Financial


Non Constitutional Bodies, Niti ayog, NHRC etc

Panchayat, Municipality, Cooperative Societies

Important amendments to the Constitution

PIL - Public Interest Litigation, Judicial Review

Doctrine of Basic Structure in Constitution

Indian Citizenship law

Constitution of India Schedules and Provisions

Criminal Laws

Theft, Extortion, Robbery, Cheating etc

Tress Pass, Negligence, Nuisance, Defamation

Liability - Vicarious, Strict, Absolute Liability

Crime, Stages, Elements, General Exceptions

IPC Chapter, Provisions and Sections

Crime, origin, Elements, Stages  Exceptions

Indian Penal Code Sections and Description

Other Laws, International bodies etc

Law of Torts - Civil Tort, Criminal Tort

Contract Essentials valid, void, voidable

United Nations, UNGA, UNSC, ICJ, UN ECOSOC

List of International Bodies

Treaty, Convention, Protocol, Summit etc..

World Intellectual Property Organization

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