151. (1) Where under any contract of insurance affected in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter, a person is insured against liabilities which he may incur to third party, then-
(a) in the event of the person becoming insolvent or making a composition or arrangement with his creditors; or
(b) where the insured person is a company, in the event of a winding-up order being made or a resolution for a voluntary winding-up being passed with respect to the company or of a receiver or manager of the company's business or undertaking being duly appointed, or of possession being taken by or on behalf of the holders of any debentures secured by a floating charge of any property comprised in or subject to the charge, if, either before or after that event, any such liability is incurred by the insured person his rights against the insurer under the contract in respect of the liability shall, notwithstanding anything to the contrary in any provision of law, be transferred to and vest in the third party to whom the liability was so incurred.
(2) Where an order for the administration of the estate of a deceased debtor is made according to the law of insolvency, then, if any debt provable in insolvency is owing by the deceased in respect of a liability to a third party against which he was insured under a contract of insurance in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter, the deceased debtor's rights against the insurer in respect of that liability shall, notwithstanding anything to the contrary in any provision of law, be transferred to and vest in the person to whom the debt is owing.
(3) Any condition in a policy issued for the purposes of this Chapter purporting, either directly or indirectly, to avoid the policy or to alter the rights of the parties thereunder upon the happening to the insured person of any of the events specified in clause (a) or clause (b) of sub-section (1) or upon the making of an order for the administration of the estate of a deceased debtor according to the law of insolvency, shall be of no effect.
(4) Upon a transfer under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2), the insurer shall be under the same liability to the third party as he would have been to the insured person, but-
(a) if the liability of the insurer to the insured person exceeds the liability of the insured person to the third party, nothing in this Chapter shall affect the rights of the insured person against the insurer in respect of the excess amount; and
(b) if the liability of the insurer to the insured person is less than the liability of the insured person to the third party, nothing in this Chapter shall affect the rights of the third party against the insured person in respect of the balance amount.
152. (1) No person against whom a claim is made in respect of any liability referred to in clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 147 shall, on demand by or on behalf of the person making the claim, refuse to state whether or not he was insured in respect of that liability by any policy issued under the provisions of this Chapter, or would have been so insured if the insurer had not avoided or cancelled the policy, nor shall he refuse, if he was or would have been so insured, to give such particulars with respect to that policy as were specified in the certificate of insurance issued in respect thereof.
(2) In the event of any person becoming insolvent or making an arrangement with his creditors or in the event of an order being made for the administration of the estate of a deceased person according to the law of insolvency, or in the event of a winding-up order being made or a resolution for a voluntary winding-up being passed with respect to any company or of a receiver or manager of the company's business or undertaking being duly appointed or of possession being taken by or on behalf of the holders of any debentures secured by a floating charge on any property comprised in or subject to the charge, it shall be the duty of the insolvent debtor, personal representative of the deceased debtor or company, as the case may be, or the official assignee or receiver in insolvency, trustee, liquidator, receiver or manager, or person in possession of the property to give, on the request of any person claiming that the insolvent debtor, deceased debtor or company is under such liability to him as is covered by the provision of this Chapter, such information as may reasonably be required by him for the purpose of ascertaining whether any rights have been transferred to and vested in him by section 151 and for the purpose of enforcing such rights, if any, and any such contract of insurance as purports whether directly or indirectly to avoid the contract or to alter the rights of the parties thereunder upon the giving of such information in the events aforesaid, or otherwise to prohibit or prevent the giving thereof in the said events, shall be of no effect.
(3) If, from the information given to any person in pursuance of sub-section (2) or otherwise, he has reasonable ground for supporting that there have or may have been transferred to him under this Chapter rights against any particular insurer, that insurer shall be subject to the same duty as is imposed by the said sub-section on the persons therein mentioned.
(4) The duty to give the information imposed by this section shall include a duty to allow all contracts of insurance, receipts for premiums, and other relevant documents in the possession or power of the person on whom the duty is so imposed to be inspected and copies thereof to be taken.
153. (1) No settlement made by an insurer in respect of any claim which might be made by a third party in respect of any liability of the nature referred to in clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 147 shall be valid unless such third party is a party to the settlement.
(2) The Claims Tribunal shall ensure that the settlement is bona fide and was not made under undue influence and the compensation is made in accordance with the payment schedule referred to in sub-section (1) of section 164.
(3) Where a person who is insured under a policy issued for the purpose of this Chapter has become insolvent, or where, if such insured person is a company, a winding-up order has been made or a resolution for a voluntary winding-up has been passed with respect to the company, no agreement made between the insurer and the insured person after the liability has been incurred to a third party and after the commencement of the insolvency or winding-up, as the case may be, nor any waiver, assignment or other disposition made by or payment made to the insured person after the commencement aforesaid, shall be effective to defeat the rights transferred to the third party under this Chapter; but those rights shall be the same as if no such agreement, waiver, assignment or disposition or payment has been made.
154. (1) For the purposes of sections 151, 152 and 153, a reference to "liabilities to third parties" in relation to a person insured under any policy of insurance shall not include a reference to any liability of that person in the capacity of insurer under some other policy of insurance. (2) The provisions of sections 151, 152 and 153 shall not apply where a company is wound-up voluntarily merely for the purposes of reconstruction or of an amalgamation with another company.
155. Notwithstanding anything contained in section 306 of the Indian Succession Act, 1925, the death of a person in whose favour a certificate of insurance had been issued, if it occurs after the happening of an event which has given rise to a claim under the provisions of this Chapter, shall not be a bar to the survival of any cause of action arising out of such event against his estate or against the insurer.
156. When an insurer has issued a certificate of insurance in respect of a contract of insurance between the insurer and the insured person, then-
(a) if and so long as the policy described in the certificate has not been issued by the insurer to the insured, the insurer shall, as between himself and any other person except the insured, be deemed to have issued to the insured person a policy of insurance conforming in all respects with the description and particulars stated in such certificate; and
(b) if the insurer has issued to the insured the policy described in the certificate, but the actual terms of the policy are less favourable to persons claiming under or by virtue of the policy against the insurer either directly or through the insured than the particulars of the policy as stated in the certificate, the policy shall, as between the insurer and any other person except the insured, be deemed to be in terms conforming in all respects with the particulars stated in the said certificate.