(1) A petition for judicial separation may be presented to the district court either by the husband or the wife,-
(a) on any of the grounds specified 3 [in sub-section (1) 4 [and sub-section (1A)] of section 27] on which a petition for divorce might have been presented; or
(b) on the ground of failure to comply with a decree for restitution of conjugal rights;
and the court, on being satisfied of the truth of the statements made in such petition, and that there is no legal ground why the application should not be granted, may decree judicial separation accordingly.
(2) Where the court grants a decree for judicial separation, it shall be no longer obligatory for the petitioner to cohabit with the respondent, but the court may, on the application by petition of either party and on being satisfied of the truth of the statements made in such petition, rescind the decree if it considers it just and reasonable to do so.
CHAPTER VI NULLITY OF MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE
(1) Any marriage solemnized under this Act shall be null and void 5 [and may, on a petition presented by either party thereto against the other party, be so declared] by a decree of nullity if-
(i) any of the conditions specified in clauses (a), (b), (c) and (d) of section 4 has not been fulfilled; or
(ii) the respondent was impotent at the time of the marriage and at the time of the institution of the suit.
(2) Nothing contained in this section shall apply to any marriage deemed to be solemnized under this Act within the meaning of section 18, but the registration of any such marriage under Chapter III may be declared to be of no effect if the registration was in contravention of any of the conditions specified in clauses (a) to (e) of section 15:
Provided that no such declaration shall be made in any case where an appeal has been preferred under section 17 and the decision of the district court has become final.
Any marriage solemnized under this Act shall be voidable and may be annulled by a decree of nullity if,-
(i) the marriage has not been consummated owing to the wilful refusal of the respondent to consummate the marriage; or
(ii) the respondent was at the time of the marriage pregnant by some person other than the petitioner; or
(iii) the consent of either party to the marriage was obtained by coercion or fraud, as defined in the Indian Contract Act, 1872 (9 of 1872):
Provided that, in the case specified in clause (ii), the court shall not grant a decree unless it is satisfied,-
(a) that the petitioner was at the time of the marriage ignorant of the facts alleged;
(b) that proceedings were instituted within a year from the date of the marriage; and
(c) that marital intercourse with the consent of the petitioner has not taken place since the discovery by the petitioner of the existence of the grounds for a decree:
Provided further that in the case specified in clause (iii), the court shall not grant a decree if,-
(a) proceedings have not been instituted within one year after the coercion had ceased or, as the case may be, the fraud had been discovered; or
(b) the petitioner has with his or her free consent lived with the other party to the marriage as husband and wife after the coercion had ceased or, as the case may be, the fraud had been discovered.
(1) Notwithstanding that a marriage is null and void under section 24, any child of such marriage who would have been legitimate if the marriage had been valid, shall be legitimate, whether such child is born before or after the commencement of the Marriage Laws (Amendment) Act, 1976 (68 of 1976), and whether or not a decree of nullity is granted in respect of that marriage under this Act and whether or not the marriage is held to be void otherwise than on a petition under this Act.
(2) Where a decree of nullity is granted in respect of a voidable marriage under section 25, any child begotten or conceived before the decree is made, who would have been the legitimate child of the parties to the marriage if at the date of the decree it has been dissolved instead of being annulled, shall be deemed to be their legitimate child notwithstanding the decree of nullity.
(3) Nothing contained in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) shall be construed as conferring upon any child of a marriage which is null and void or which is annulled by a decree of nullity under section 25, any rights in or to the property of any person, other than the parents, in any case where, but for the passing of this Act, such child would have been incapable of possessing or acquiring any such rights by reason of not his being the legitimate child of his parents.