Is Agreements void for uncertainty? Section 29 of Indian Contract Act 1872
29. Agreements, the meaning of which is not certain, or capable of being made certain, are void.
(a) A agrees to sell to B "a hundred tons of oil". There is nothing whatever to show what kind of oil was intended. The agreement is void for uncertainty.
(b) A agrees to sell to B one hundred tons of oil of a specified description, known as an article of commerce. There is no uncertainty here to make the agreement void.
(c) A, who is a dealer in coconut oil only, agrees to sell to B "one hundred tons of oil". The nature of A's trade affords an indication of the meanings of the words, and A has entered into a contract for the sale of one hundred tons of coconut oil.
(d) A agrees to sell to B "all the grain in my granary at Ramnagar". There is no uncertainty here to make the agreement void.
(e) A agrees to sell to B "one thousand maunds of rice at a price to be fixed by C". As the price is capable of being made certain, there is no uncertainty here to make the agreement void.
(f) A agrees to sell to B "my white horse for rupees five hundred or rupees one thousand". There is nothing to show which of the two prices was to be given. The agreement is void.
Section 21 - Effect of mistakes as to law
Section 22 - Contract caused by mistake of one party as to matter of fact
Section 23 - What considerations and objects are lawful and what not
Section 24 - Agreements void, if considerations and objects unlawful in part
Section 25 - Agreement void, if made without consideration
Section 26 - Agreement in restraint of marriage void
Section 27 - Agreement in restraint of trade void
Section 28 - Agreements in restraint of legal proceedings void
Section 29 - Agreements void for uncertainty
Section 30 - Agreements by way of wager void
CHAPTER III CONTINGENT CONTRACTS
Section 31 - Contingent contract defined
Section 32 - Enforcement of contracts contingent on an event happening
Section 33 - Enforcement of contracts contingent on an event not happening
Section 34 - When event on which contract is contingent to be deemed impossible, if it is the future conduct of a living person
Section 35 - When contracts become void which are contingent on happening of specified event within fixed time
Section 36 - Agreements contingent on impossible events void
CHAPTER IV THE PERFORMANCE OF CONTRACTS
Section 37 - Obligation of parties to contracts
Section 38 - Effect of refusal to accept offer of performance
Section 39 - Effect of refusal of party to perform promise wholly
By whom contracts must be performed