What considerations and objects are lawful and what not? Section 23 of Indian Contract Act 1872
23. The consideration or object of an agreement is lawful, unless-
it is forbidden by law1; or
is of such a nature that, if permitted, it would defeat the provisions of any law; or
is fraudulent; or
involves or implies injury to the person or property of another; or
the Court regards it as immoral, or opposed to public policy.
In each of these cases, the consideration or object of an agreement is said to be unlawful. Every agreement of which the object or consideration is unlawful is void.
(a) A agrees to sell his house to B for 10,000 rupees. Here B's promise to pay the sum of 10,000 rupees is the consideration for A's promise to sell the house, and A's promise to sell the house is the consideration for B's promise to pay the 10,000 rupees. These are lawful considerations.
(b) A promises to pay B 1,000 rupees at the end of six months, if C, who owes that sum to B, fails to pay it. B promises to grant time to C accordingly. Here the promise of each party is the consideration for the promise of the other party and they are lawful considerations.
(c) A promises, for a certain sum paid to him by B, to make good to B the value of his ship if it is wrecked on a certain voyage. Here A's promise is the consideration for B's payment, and B's payment is the consideration for A's promise and these are lawful considerations.
(d) A promises to maintain B's child and B promises to pay A 1,000 rupees yearly for the purpose. Here the promise of each party is the consideration for the promise of the other party. They are lawful considerations.
(e) A, B and C enter into an agreement for the division among them of gains acquired, or to be acquired, by them by fraud. The agreement is void, as its object is unlawful.
(f) A promises to obtain for B an employment in the public service, and B promises to pay 1,000 rupees to A. The agreement is void, as the consideration for it is unlawful.
(g) A, being agent for a landed proprietor, agrees for money, without the knowledge of his principal, to obtain for B a lease of land belonging to his principal. The agreement between A and B is void, as it implies a fraud by concealment, by A, on his principal.
(h) A promises B to drop a prosecution which he has instituted against B for robbery, and B promises to restore the value of the things taken. The agreement is void, as its object is unlawful.
(i) A's estate is sold for arrears of revenue under the provisions of an act of the Legislature, by which the defaulter is prohibited from purchasing the estate. B, upon an understanding with A, becomes the purchaser, and agrees to convey the estate to A upon receiving from him the price which B has paid. The agreement is void, as it renders the transaction, in effect, a purchase by the defaulter, and would so defeat the object of the law.
(j) A, who is B's mukhtar, promises to exercise his influence, as such, with B in favour of C, and C promises to pay 1,000 rupees to A. The agreement is void, because it is immoral.
(k) A agrees to let her daughter to hire to B for concubinage. The agreement is void, because it is immoral, though the letting may not be punishable under the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).
Section 21 - Effect of mistakes as to law
Section 22 - Contract caused by mistake of one party as to matter of fact
Section 23 - What considerations and objects are lawful and what not
Section 24 - Agreements void, if considerations and objects unlawful in part
Section 25 - Agreement void, if made without consideration
Section 26 - Agreement in restraint of marriage void
Section 27 - Agreement in restraint of trade void
Section 28 - Agreements in restraint of legal proceedings void
Section 29 - Agreements void for uncertainty
Section 30 - Agreements by way of wager void
CHAPTER III CONTINGENT CONTRACTS
Section 31 - Contingent contract defined
Section 32 - Enforcement of contracts contingent on an event happening
Section 33 - Enforcement of contracts contingent on an event not happening
Section 34 - When event on which contract is contingent to be deemed impossible, if it is the future conduct of a living person
Section 35 - When contracts become void which are contingent on happening of specified event within fixed time
Section 36 - Agreements contingent on impossible events void
CHAPTER IV THE PERFORMANCE OF CONTRACTS
Section 37 - Obligation of parties to contracts
Section 38 - Effect of refusal to accept offer of performance
Section 39 - Effect of refusal of party to perform promise wholly
By whom contracts must be performed