Section 196 - Right of person as to acts done for him without his
authority, Section 197 - Effect of ratification Ratification may be
expressed or implied : Indian Contract Act
What is the Right of person as to acts done for him without his
authority? What is the effect of ratification? Ratification may be
expressed or implied? Section 196 and 197 of Indian Contract Act
Section 196 of Indian Contract Act 1872 : "Right of person as
to acts done for him without his authority, Effect of ratification"
196. Where acts are done by one person on behalf of another,
but without his knowledge or authority, he may elect to ratify
or to disown such acts. If he ratifies them, the same effects
will follow as if they had been performed by his authority.
Section 197 of Indian Contract Act 1872 : "Ratification
may be expressed or implied"
197. Ratification may be expressed or may be implied in the
conduct of the person on whose behalf the acts are done.
(a) A, without authority, buys goods for B. Afterwards B sells
them to C on his own account; B's conduct implies a ratification
of the purchase made for him by A.
(b) A, without B's authority, lends B's money to C.
Afterwards B accepts interest on the money from C. B's conduct
implies a ratification of the loan.
INDIAN CONTRACT ACT 1872
Section 186 -
Agent's authority may be express or implied
Section 187 - Definitions of express and implied authority
Section 188 -
Extent of agent's authority
Section 189 - Agent's authority in an emergency
Section 190 -
When agent cannot delegate
Section 191 - Sub-agent defined
Section 192 -
Representation of principal by sub-agent properly appointed
Section 193 - Agent's responsibility for sub-agent appointed
Section 194 -
Relation between principal and person duly appointed by
agent to act in business of agency
Section 195 - Agent's duty in naming such person
Section 196 -
Right of person as to acts done for him without his
Section 197 - Effect of ratification Ratification may be
expressed or implied
Section 198 -
Knowledge requisite for valid ratification
Section 199 - Effect of ratifying unauthorized act forming
part of a transaction
Section 200 - Ratification of unauthorized act cannot injure
Revocation of Authority
Section 201 - Termination of agency
Section 202 - Termination of agency, where agent has an
interest in subject-matter
Section 203 - When principal may revoke agent's authority
Section 204 - Revocation where authority has been partly
Section 205 - Compensation for revocation by principal, or
renunciation by agent