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Section 35 - Election when necessary : Transfer of Property Act, 1882

 

 

Election when necessary? Section 35 of Transfer of Property Act, 1882

Section 35 of Transfer of Property Act 1882 : "Election when necessary"

35. (1) Where a person professes to transfer property which he has no right to transfer, and as part of the same transaction confers any benefit on the owner of the property, such owner must elect either to confirm such transfer or to dissent from it; and in the latter case he shall relinquish the benefit so conferred, and the benefit so relinquished shall revert to the transferor or his representative as if it had not been disposed of, subject nevertheless, where the transfer is gratuitous, and the transferor has, before the election, died or otherwise become incapable of making a fresh transfer, and in all cases where the transfer is for consideration, to the charge of making good to the disappointed transferee the amount or value of the property attempted to be transferred to him.

Illustrations
The farm of Sultanpur is the property of C and worth Rs. 800. A by an instrument of gift professes to transfer it to B, giving by the same instrument Rs. 1,000 to C. C elects to retain the farm. He forfeits the gift of Rs. 1,000.

In the same case, A dies before the election. His representative must out of the Rs. 1,000 pay Rs. 800 to B.

The rule in the first paragraph of this section applies whether the transferor does or does not believe that which he professes to transfer to be his own.

A person taking no benefit directly under a transaction, but deriving a benefit under it indirectly, need not elect.

A person who in his one capacity takes a benefit under the transaction may in another dissent therefrom.

Exception to the last preceding four rules. - Where a particular benefit is expressed to be conferred on the owner of the property which the transferor professes to transfer, and such benefit is expressed to be in lieu of that property, if such owner claim the property, he must relinquish the particular benefit, but he is not bound to relinquish any other benefit conferred upon him by the same transaction.

Acceptance of the benefit by the person on whom it is conferred constitutes an election by him to confirm the transfer, if he is aware of his duty to elect and of those circumstances which would influence the judgment of a reasonable man in making an election, or if he waives enquiry into the circumstances.

Such knowledge or waiver shall, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, be presumed, if the person on whom the benefit has been conferred has enjoyed it for two years without doing any act to express dissent.

 

Such knowledge or waiver may be inferred from any act of his which renders it impossible to place the persons interested in the property professed to be transferred in the same condition as if such act had not been done.

Illustration
A transfers to B an estate to which C is entitled, and as part of the same transaction gives C a coal-mine. C takes possession of the mine and exhausts it. He has thereby confirmed the transfer of the estate to B.

If he does not within one year after the date of the transfer signify to the transferor or his representatives his intention to confirm or to dissent from the transfer, the transferor or his representatives may, upon the expiration of that period, require him to make his election; and, if he does not comply with such requisition within a reasonable time after he has received it, he shall be deemed to have elected to confirm the transfer.

In case of disability, the election shall be postponed until the disability ceases, or until the election is made by some competent authority.

 

TRANSFER OF PROPERTY ACT 1882

Section 21 - Contingent interest

Section 22 - Transfer to members of a class who attain a particular age

Section 23 - Transfer contingent on happening of specified uncertain event

Section 24 - Transfer to such of certain persons as survive at some period not specified

Section 25 - Conditional transfer

 

 

Section 26 - Fulfillment of condition precedent

Section 27 - Conditional transfer to one person coupled with transfer to another on failure of prior disposition

Section 28 - Ulterior transfer conditional on happening or not happening of specified event

Section 29 - Fulfillment of condition subsequent

Section 30 - Prior disposition not affected by invalidity of ulterior disposition

 

 

Section 31 - Condition that transfer shall cease to have effect in case specified uncertain event happens or does not happen

Section 32 - Such condition must not be invalid

Section 33 - Transfer conditional on performance of act, no time being specified for performance

Section 34 - Transfer conditional on performance of act, time being specified

Section 35 - Election when necessary

 

 

Section 36 - Apportionment of periodical payments on determination of interest of person entitled

Section 37 - Apportionment of benefit of obligation on severance

Section 38 - Transfer by person authorised only under certain circumstances to transfer

Section 39 - Transfer where third person is entitled to maintenance

Section 40 - Burden of obligation imposing restriction on use of land

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