Section 46 - Delivery, Section 47 - Negotiation by delivery, Section - 48 Negotiation by indorsement : Negotiable Instruments Act 1881

What is Delivery? What is Negotiation by delivery? What is Negotiation by indorsement? Delivery, Negotiation by delivery and Negotiation by indorsement are defined under Section 46, 47 and 48 of Negotiable Instruments Act 1881

 

 

Section 46 of Negotiable Instruments Act 1881: "Delivery"

The making, acceptance or indorsement of a promissory note, bill of exchange or cheque is completed by delivery, actual or constructive.

As between parties standing in immediate relation, delivery to be effectual must be made by the party making, accepting or indorsing the instrument, or by a person authorized by him in that behalf.

As between such parties and any holder of the instrument other than a holder in due course, it may be shown that the instrument was delivered conditionally or for a special purpose only, and not for the purpose of transferring absolutely the property therein.

A promissory note, bill of exchange or cheque payable to bearer is negotiable by the delivery thereof.

A promissory note, bill of exchange or cheque payable to order is negotiable by the holder by indorsement and delivery thereof.

 

Section 47 of Negotiable Instruments Act 1881: "Negotiation by delivery"

Subject to the provisions of section 58, a promissory note, bill of exchange or cheque payable to bearer is negotiable by delivery thereof.

Exception : A promissory note, bill of exchange or cheque delivered on condition that it is not to take effect except in a certain event is not negotiable (except in the hands of a holder for value without notice of the condition) unless such event happens.

Illustrations
(a) A, the holder of a negotiable instrument payable to bearer, delivers it to B's agent to keep for B. The instrument has been negotiated.

(b) A, the holder of a negotiable instrument payable to bearer, which is in the hands of A's banker, who is at the time the banker of B, directs the banker to transfer the instrument to B's credit in the banker's account with B. The banker does so, and accordingly now possesses the instrument as B's agent. The instrument has been negotiated, and B has become the holder of it.

 

Section 48 of Negotiable Instruments Act 1881: "Negotiation by indorsement"

Subject to the provisions of section 58, a promissory note, bill of exchange or cheque payable to order, is negotiable by the holder by indorsement and delivery thereof.

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