Section 278E of Income Tax Act "Presumption as to culpable mental state"
Section 278E. (1) In any prosecution for any offence under this Act which requires a culpable mental state on the part of the accused, the court shall presume the existence of such mental state but it shall be a defence for the accused to prove the fact that he had no such mental state with respect to the act charged as an offence in that prosecution.
Explanation.-In this sub-section, "culpable mental state" includes intention, motive or knowledge of a fact or belief in, or reason to believe, a fact.
(2) For the purposes of this section, a fact is said to be proved only when the court believes it to exist beyond reasonable doubt and not merely when its existence is established by a preponderance of probability.
Section 279 of Income Tax Act "Prosecution to be at instance of [Principal Chief Commissioner or] Chief Commissioner or [Principal Commissioner or] Commissioner"
Section 279. (1) A person shall not be proceeded against for an offence under section 275A, section 275B, section 276, section 276A, section 276B, section 276BB, section 276C, section 276CC, section 276D, section 277, section 277A or section 278 except with the previous sanction of the 13[Principal Commissioner or] Commissioner or Commissioner (Appeals) or the appropriate authority:
Provided that the 13[Principal Chief Commissioner or] Chief Commissioner or, as the case may be, 13[Principal Director General or] Director General may issue such instructions or directions to the aforesaid income-tax authorities as he may deem fit for institution of proceedings under this sub-section.
Explanation.-For the purposes of this section, "appropriate authority" shall have the same meaning as in clause (c) of section 269UA.
(1A) A person shall not be proceeded against for an offence under section 276C or section 277 in relation to the assessment for an assessment year in respect of which the penalty imposed or imposable on him under clause (iii) of sub-section (1) of section 271 has been reduced or waived by an order under section 273A.
(2) Any offence under this Chapter may, either before or after the institution of proceedings, be compounded by the [Principal Chief Commissioner or] Chief Commissioner or a [Principal Director General or] Director General.
(3) Where any proceeding has been taken against any person under sub-section (1), any statement made or account or other document produced by such person before any of the income-tax authorities specified in clauses (a) to (g) of section 116 shall not be inadmissible as evidence for the purpose of such proceedings merely on the ground that such statement was made or such account or other document was produced in the belief that the penalty imposable would be reduced or waived, under section 273A or that the offence in respect of which such proceeding was taken would be compounded.
Explanation.-For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that the power of the Board to issue orders, instructions or directions under this Act shall include and shall be deemed always to have included the power to issue instructions or directions (including instructions or directions to obtain the previous approval of the Board) to other income-tax authorities for the proper composition of offences under this section.
What is Presumption as to culpable mental state? What is Prosecution to be at instance of [Principal Chief Commissioner or] Chief Commissioner or [Principal Commissioner or] Commissioner? Section 278E and 279 of Income Tax Act 1961