Section 230 - Agent cannot personally enforce, nor be bound by,
contracts on behalf of principal, Section 231 - Rights of parties to
a contract made by agent not disclosed: Indian Contract Act
What is the meaning of Agent cannot personally enforce, nor be bound
by, contracts on behalf of principal? What is the meaning of Rights
of parties to a contract made by agent not disclosed? Section 230 and 231 of Indian Contract Act
Section 230 of Indian Contract Act 1872 : "Agent cannot
personally enforce, nor be bound by, contracts on behalf of
230. In the absence of any contract to that effect, an agent
cannot personally enforce contracts entered into by him on
behalf of his principal, nor is he personally bound by them.
Presumption of contract to contrary.-Such a contract shall be
presumed to exist in the following cases:-
(1) Where the contract is made by an agent for the sale or
purchase of goods for a merchant resident abroad;
(2) Where the agent does not disclose the name of his
(3) Where the principal, though disclosed, cannot be sued.
Section 231 of Indian Contract Act 1872 : "Rights of parties to
a contract made by agent not disclosed"
231. If an agent makes a contract with a person who neither
knows, nor has reason to suspect, that he is an agent, his
principal may require the performance of the contract; but the
other contracting party has, as against the principal, the same
rights as he would have had as against the agent if the agent
had been principal.
If the principal discloses himself before the contract is
completed, the other contracting party may refuse to fulfil the
contract, if he can show that, if he had known who was the
principal in the contract, or if he had known that the agent was
not a principal, he would not have entered into the contract.