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Section 196 - Right of person as to acts done for him without his authority, Section 197 - Effect of ratification Ratification may be expressed or implied : Indian Contract Act 1872

 

What is the Right of person as to acts done for him without his authority? What is the effect of ratification? Ratification may be expressed or implied? Section 196 and 197 of Indian Contract Act 1872

Section 196 of Indian Contract Act 1872 : "Right of person as to acts done for him without his authority, Effect of ratification"

196. Where acts are done by one person on behalf of another, but without his knowledge or authority, he may elect to ratify or to disown such acts. If he ratifies them, the same effects will follow as if they had been performed by his authority.

Section 197 of Indian Contract Act 1872 : "Ratification may be expressed or implied"

197. Ratification may be expressed or may be implied in the conduct of the person on whose behalf the acts are done.

Illustrations
(a) A, without authority, buys goods for B. Afterwards B sells them to C on his own account; B's conduct implies a ratification of the purchase made for him by A.

(b) A, without B's authority, lends B's money to C. Afterwards B accepts interest on the money from C. B's conduct implies a ratification of the loan.

 

INDIAN CONTRACT ACT 1872

Section 186 - Agent's authority may be express or implied

Section 187 - Definitions of express and implied authority

Section 188 - Extent of agent's authority

Section 189 - Agent's authority in an emergency

Section 190 - When agent cannot delegate

 

 

Sub-agents

Section 191 - Sub-agent defined

Section 192 - Representation of principal by sub-agent properly appointed

Section 193 - Agent's responsibility for sub-agent appointed without authority

Section 194 - Relation between principal and person duly appointed by agent to act in business of agency

Section 195 - Agent's duty in naming such person

 

 

Ratification

Section 196 - Right of person as to acts done for him without his authority

Section 197 - Effect of ratification Ratification may be expressed or implied

Section 198 - Knowledge requisite for valid ratification

Section 199 - Effect of ratifying unauthorized act forming part of a transaction

Section 200 - Ratification of unauthorized act cannot injure third person

 

 

Revocation of Authority

Section 201 - Termination of agency

Section 202 - Termination of agency, where agent has an interest in subject-matter

Section 203 - When principal may revoke agent's authority

Section 204 - Revocation where authority has been partly exercised

Section 205 - Compensation for revocation by principal, or renunciation by agent

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