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ARTICLE 348, 349 OF CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 1949

What is the Language to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts and for Acts, Bills, etc? What is the Special procedure for enactment of certain laws relating to language? Article 348 and 349 of Constitution of India, 1949

Language to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts and for Acts, Bills, etc and Special procedure for enactment of certain laws relating to language are defined under Article 348 and 349 of Constitution of India 1949. Provisions under these Articles are:

Article 348 of Constitution of India "Language to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts and for Acts, Bills, etc"

(1) Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Part, until Parliament by law otherwise provides-

(a) all proceedings in the Supreme Court and in every High Court,

(b) the authoritative texts-

(i) of all Bills to be introduced or amendments thereto to be moved in either House of Parliament or in the House or either House of the Legislature of a State,

 

(ii) of all Acts passed by Parliament or the Legislature of a State and of all Ordinances promulgated by the President or the Governor of a State, and

(iii) of all orders, rules, regulations and bye- laws issued under this Constitution or under any law made by Parliament or the Legislature of a State, shall be in the English language.

(2) Notwithstanding anything in sub-clause (a) of clause (1), the Governor of a State may, with the previous consent of the President, authorise the use of the Hindi language, or any other language used for any official purposes of the State, in proceedings in the High Court having its principal seat in that State:

Provided that nothing in this clause shall apply to any judgment, decree or order passed or made by such High Court.

(3) Notwithstanding anything in sub-clause (b) of clause (1), where the Legislature of a State has prescribed any language other than the English language for use in Bills introduced in, or Acts passed by, the Legislature of the State or in Ordinances promulgated by the Governor of the State or in any order, rule, regulation or bye-law referred to in paragraph (iii) of that sub-clause, a translation of the same in the English language published under the authority of the Governor of the State in the Official Gazette of that State shall be deemed to be the authoritative text thereof in the English language under this article.

Article 349 of Constitution of India "Special procedure for enactment of certain laws relating to language"

During the period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, no Bill or amendment making provision for the language to be used for any of the purposes mentioned in clause (1) of Article 348 shall be introduced or moved in either House of Parliament without the previous sanction of the President, and the President shall not give his sanction to the introduction of any such Bill or the moving of any such amendment except after he has taken into consideration the recommendations of the Commission constituted under clause (1) of Article 344 and the report of the Committee constituted under clause (4) of that article.

Constitution of India 1949

What is the Official language of the Union? What is the Commission and Committee of Parliament on official language? Article 343 and 344 of Constitution of India, 1949

What is Official language or languages of a State? What is Official language for communication between one State and another or between a State and the Union? What is Special provision relating to language spoken by a section of the population of a State? Article 345, 346 and 347 of Constitution of India, 1949

What is the Language to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts and for Acts, Bills, etc? What is the Special procedure for enactment of certain laws relating to language? Article 348 and 349 of Constitution of India, 1949

What is the Language to be used in representations for redress of grievances? What are the Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage? Article 350 and 350A of Constitution of India, 1949

Who is the Special Officer for linguistic minorities? What are Directive for development of the Hindi language? Article 350B and 351 of Constitution of India, 1949

What is Proclamation of Emergency and Emergency Provisions? Article 352 of Constitution of India, 1949

What is the Effect of Proclamation of Emergency? What is Application of provisions relating to distribution of revenues while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation? Article 353 and 354 of Constitution of India, 1949

What is the meaning Duty of the Union to protect States against external aggression and internal disturbance? What are the Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in State? Article 355 and 356 of Constitution of India, 1949

What is Exercise of legislative powers under Proclamation issued under Article 356? What is Suspension of provisions of Article 19 during emergencies? Article 357 and 358 of Constitution of India, 1949

What is Suspension of the enforcement of the rights conferred by Part III during emergencies? Article 359 of Constitution of India, 1949

What are the Provisions as to financial emergency? Article 360 of Constitution of India, 1949


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