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ARTICLE 343, 344 OF CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 1949

What is the Official language of the Union? What is the Commission and Committee of Parliament on official language? Article 343 and 344 of Constitution of India, 1949

Official language of the Union and Commission and Committee of Parliament on official language are defined under Article 343 and 344 of Constitution of India 1949. Provisions under these Articles are:

Article 343 of Constitution of India "Official language of the Union"

(1) The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script. The form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals.

(2) Notwithstanding anything in clause (1), for a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, the English language shall continue to be used for all the official purposes of the Union for which it was being used immediately before such commencement:

Provided that the president may, during the said period, by order authorise the use of the Hindi language in addition to the English language and of the Devanagari form of numerals in addition to the international form of Indian numerals for any of the official purposes of the Union.

 

(3) Notwithstanding anything in this article, Parliament may by law provide for the use, after the said period of fifteen years, of-

(a) the English language, or

(b) the Devanagari form of numerals, for such purposes as may be specified in the law.

Article 344 of Constitution of India "Commission and Committee of Parliament on official language"

(1) The President shall, at the expiration of five years from the commencement of this Constitution and thereafter at the expiration of ten years from such commencement, by order constitute a Commission which shall consist of a Chairman and such other members representing the different languages specified in the English Schedule as the President may appoint, and the order shall define the procedure to be followed by the Commission.

(2) It shall be the duty of the Commission to make recommendations to the President as to-

(a) the progressive use of the Hindi language for the official purposes of the Union;

(b) restrictions on the use of the English language for all or any of the official purposes of the Union;

(c) the language to be used for all or any of the purposes mentioned in Article 348;

(d) the form of numerals to be used for any one or more specified purposes of the Union;

(e) any other matter referred to the Commission by the President as regards the official language of the Union and the language for communication between the Union and a State or between one State and another and their use.

(3) In making their recommendations under clause (2), the Commission shall have due regard to the industrial, cultural and scientific advancement of India, and the jut claims and the interests of persons belonging to the non-Hindi speaking areas in regard to the public services.

(4) There shall be constituted a Committee consisting of thirty members, of whom twenty shall be members of the House of the People and ten shall be members of the Council of States to be elected respectively by the members of the House of the People and the members of the council of States in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote.

(5) It shall be the duty of the Committee to examine the recommendations of the Commission constituted under clause (1) and to report to the President their opinion thereon.

(6) Notwithstanding anything in Article 343, the President may, after consideration of the report referred to in clause (5), issue directions in accordance with the whole or any part of that report.

Constitution of India 1949

What is the Official language of the Union? What is the Commission and Committee of Parliament on official language? Article 343 and 344 of Constitution of India, 1949

What is Official language or languages of a State? What is Official language for communication between one State and another or between a State and the Union? What is Special provision relating to language spoken by a section of the population of a State? Article 345, 346 and 347 of Constitution of India, 1949

What is the Language to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts and for Acts, Bills, etc? What is the Special procedure for enactment of certain laws relating to language? Article 348 and 349 of Constitution of India, 1949

What is the Language to be used in representations for redress of grievances? What are the Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage? Article 350 and 350A of Constitution of India, 1949

Who is the Special Officer for linguistic minorities? What are Directive for development of the Hindi language? Article 350B and 351 of Constitution of India, 1949

What is Proclamation of Emergency and Emergency Provisions? Article 352 of Constitution of India, 1949

What is the Effect of Proclamation of Emergency? What is Application of provisions relating to distribution of revenues while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation? Article 353 and 354 of Constitution of India, 1949

What is the meaning Duty of the Union to protect States against external aggression and internal disturbance? What are the Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in State? Article 355 and 356 of Constitution of India, 1949

What is Exercise of legislative powers under Proclamation issued under Article 356? What is Suspension of provisions of Article 19 during emergencies? Article 357 and 358 of Constitution of India, 1949

What is Suspension of the enforcement of the rights conferred by Part III during emergencies? Article 359 of Constitution of India, 1949

What are the Provisions as to financial emergency? Article 360 of Constitution of India, 1949


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