Meaning of High Court
Article 214 of the Constitution provides that each state shall have a High
Court. This is the highest court in a state and is subordinate only to the
Supreme Court of India. The powers of the High Court are broadly categorized as
judicial and administrative. In its judicial function the High Court can be
approached directly (eg. writ petitions), or in appeals or revisions—both civil
and criminal. In its administrative function the High Court supervises the
functioning of the lower judiciary in the State. In the civil side, in an
ascending order of hierarchy, is the Civil Judge (Junior Division), Civil Judge
(Senior Division), the Additional District Judge and the District Judge; the
criminal side includes Metropolitan Magistrates, Chief Metropolitan Magistrates,
Additional Sessions Judges and the Sessions Judge. The powers of a High Court do
not extend beyond the territory of the State. While every decision of the
Supreme Court is binding on the High Courts, the decisions of one High Court is
not binding on the other. The High Court is a court of record.
What is the meaning of In
In place of.
What is In limine?
Translated from the Latin as ’preliminary’, for example, when a writ petition is
dismissed in limine, it is dismissed at the admission stage.
What is In pari delicto?
When both the parties are equally in fault.
What is Infructuous?
A petition or application to the court becomes infructuous when the fundamental
premises upon which a petition is based no longer exist or where the relief
sought has already been granted to the petitioner.
What is Inquisitorial Proceedings?
Fact-finding proceedings, not necessarily involving disputing parties. The Court
investigates and ascertains the facts of a matter, for instance by appointing
Commissions, which are given specific terms of reference. Often faced with
difficulty in getting all the information necessary to resolve the issues
brought in PIL, the Court has found this procedure to be convenient.
What is Interim Order?
Any order by a court before a final order is made.
What is Interlocutory Application?
petition seeking a relief even while the main petition remains in the Court.
This may be in the nature of a stay, direction, permission (e.g. to amend the
petition), exemption (e.g. from payment of court fees), condonation of delay,
modification or clarification of an earlier order, restoration of a petition
dismissed for nonappearance of a party.
What is Interpleader suit?
Interpleader suits are governed by Order XXXV of the Code of Civil Procedure,
1908. They are brought by a third person to have a court determine the ownership
rights of rival claimants to the same money or property that is held by that
What is Intervenor?
A person who is not a party to the proceedings may, with the permission of the
court, intervene if it is shown that the outcome of the case will affect such
person in some way. An intervenor does not become a party, does not have an
automatic right to be heard, but may file an affidavit. The intervenor is bound
by the decision in the case, just as is a party. The participation of interest
groups as intervenor has changed the character of many cases, giving them a PIL
content. For example, women’s groups have intervened in the lower courts in rape
or dowry cases. Interventions have been common in PIL cases, as the public
importance of an issue has inspired organizations and individuals to participate
in the proceedings.
What is Issue Notice?
When a Court decides to consider a case it asks the respondents to explain why
the case should not be admitted (show cause). This is done by a notice sent to
the respondents which gives the details of the case and the next date of hearing
alongwith a copy of the petition. If the respondent does not appear on this
date, the court may proceed ex parte.