What is Presumption as to books, maps and charts? What is Presumption as to electronic messages? Section 88 and 88a of Indian Evidence Act 1872

 Presumption as to books, maps and charts and Presumption as to electronic messages are defined under section 88 and 88a of Indian Evidence Act 1872. Provisions under these sections are:

Section 88 of Evidence Act "Presumption as to books, maps and charts"

The Court may presume that a message, forwarded from a telegraph office to the person to whom such message purports to be addressed, corresponds with a message delivered for transmission at the office from which the message purports to be sent ; but the Court shall not make any presumption as to the person by whom such message was delivered for transmission.

 

Section 88a of Evidence Act "Presumption as to electronic messages"

The Court may presume that an electronic message forwarded by the originator through an electronic mail server to the addressee to whom the message purports to be addressed corresponds with the message as fed into his computer for transmission; but the Court shall not make any presumption as to the person by whom such message was sent.

Explanation.- For the purposes of this section, the expressions "addressee" and "originator" shall have the same meanings respectively assigned to them in clause (b) and (za) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Information Technology Act, 2000.]

Indian Evidence Act 1872

What is Presumption as to Gazettes, newspapers, private Acts of Parliament and other documents? What is Presumption as to Gazettes in electronic forms? Section 81 and 81a of Indian Evidence Act 1872

What is Presumption as to document admissible in England without proof of seal or signature? What is Presumption as to maps or plans made by authority of Government? Section 82 and 83 of Indian Evidence Act 1872

What is Presumption as to collections of laws and reports of decisions? What is Presumption as to powers-of-attorney? Section 84 and 85 of Indian Evidence Act 1872

What is Presumption as to electronic agreements? What is Presumption as to electronic record and digital signatures? What is Presumption as to Digital Signature Certificates? Section 85A, 85B and 85C of Indian Evidence Act 1872

What is Presumption as to certified copies of foreign judicial records? What is Presumption as to books, maps and charts? Section 86 and 87 of Indian Evidence Act 1872

What is Presumption as to books, maps and charts? What is Presumption as to electronic messages? Section 88 and 88a of Indian Evidence Act 1872

What is Presumption as to due execution, etc., of documents not produced? What is Presumption as to documents thirty years old? What is Presumption as to electronic records five year old? Section 89, 90 and 90a of Indian Evidence Act 1872

 

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