What is Cross–examination as to previous Statements in writing What are Questions lawful in cross-examination When witness to be compelled to answer Section 145, 146 and 147 of Indian Evidence Act 1872

Cross–examination as to previous Statements in writing, Questions lawful in cross-examination and When witness to be compelled to answer are defined under section 145, 146 and 147 of Indian Evidence Act 1872. Provisions under these sections are:

 

Section 145 of Evidence Act "Cross–examination as to previous Statements in writing"

A witness may be cross- examined as to previous statements made by him in writing or reduced into writing or reduced into writing, and relevant to matters in question, without such writing being shown to him, or being proved; but, if it is intended to contradict him by the writing, his attention must, before the writing can be proved, be called to those parts of its which are to be used for the purpose of contradicting him.


 

Section 146 of Evidence Act "Questions lawful in cross-examination"

When a witness is cross-examined, he may, in addition to the questions herein before referred to be asked any questions which tend-

(1) to test his veracity.

(2) to discover who he is and what is his position in life, or

(3) to shake his credit, by injuring his character, although the answer to such questions might tend directly or indirectly to criminate him or might expose or tend directly or indirectly t expose him to a penalty or forfeiture.

 

Section 147 of Evidence Act "When witness to be compelled to answer"
If any such question relates to a matter relevant to the suit or proceeding, the provisions of section 132 shall apply thereto.

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