Section 271 of Indian Companies Act 2013 "Circumstances in which company may be wound up by Tribunal"
(1) A company may, on a petition under section 272, be wound up by the Tribunal, -
(a) if the company is unable to pay its debts;
(b) if the company has, by special resolution, resolved that the company be wound up by the Tribunal;
(c) if the company has acted against the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality;
(d) if the Tribunal has ordered the winding up of the company under Chapter XIX;
(e) if on an application made by the Registrar or any other person authorised by the Central Government by notification under this Act, the Tribunal is of the opinion that the affairs of the company have been conducted in a fraudulent manner or the company was formed for fraudulent and unlawful purpose or the persons concerned in the formation or management of its affairs have been guilty of fraud, misfeasance or misconduct in connection therewith and that it is proper that the company be wound up;
(f) if the company has made a default in filing with the Registrar its financial statements or annual returns for immediately preceding five consecutive financial years; or
(g) if the Tribunal is of the opinion that it is just and equitable that the company should be wound up.
(2) A company shall be deemed to be unable to pay its debts, -
(a) if a creditor, by assignment or otherwise, to whom
the company is indebted for an amount exceeding one lakh
rupees then due, has served on the company, by causing it to
be delivered at its registered office, by registered post or
otherwise, a demand requiring the company to pay the amount
so due and the company has failed to pay the sum within
twenty-one days after the receipt of such demand or to
adequate security or re-structure or compound the debt to the reasonable satisfaction of the creditor;
(b) if any execution or other process issued on a decree or order of any court or tribunal in favour of a creditor of the company is returned unsatisfied in whole or in part; or
(c) if it is proved to the satisfaction of the Tribunal that the company is unable to pay its debts, and, in determining whether a company is unable to pay its debts, the Tribunal shall take into account the contingent and prospective liabilities of the company.
Section 272 of Indian Companies Act 2013 "Petition for winding up"
(1) Subject to the provisions of this section, a petition to the Tribunal for the winding up of a company shall be presented by -
(a) the company;
(b) any creditor or creditors, including any contingent or prospective creditor or creditors;
(c) any contributory or contributories;
(d) all or any of the persons specified in clauses (a), (b) and (c) together;
(e) the Registrar;
(f) any person authorised by the Central Government in that behalf; or
(g) in a case falling under clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 271, by the Central Government or a State Government.
(2) A secured creditor, the holder of any debentures, whether or not any trustee or trustees have been appointed in respect of such and other like debentures, and the trustee for the holders of debentures shall be deemed to be creditors within the meaning of clause (b) of sub-section (1).
(3) A contributory shall be entitled to present a petition for the winding up of a company, notwithstanding that he may be the holder of fully paid-up shares, or that the company may have no assets at all or may have no surplus assets left for distribution among the shareholders after the satisfaction of its liabilities, and shares in respect of which he is a contributory or some of them were either originally allotted to him or have been held by him, and registered in his name, for at least six months during the eighteen months immediately before the commencement of the winding up or have devolved on him through the death of a former holder.
(4) The Registrar shall be entitled to present a petition for winding up under subsection (1) on any of the grounds specified in sub-section (1) of section 271, except on the grounds specified in clause (b), clause (d) or clause (g) of that sub-section:
Provided that the Registrar shall not present a petition on the ground that the company is unable to pay its debts unless it appears to him either from the financial condition of the company as disclosed in its balance sheet or from the report of an inspector appointed under section 210 that the company is unable to pay its debts:
Provided further that the Registrar shall obtain the previous sanction of the Central Government to the presentation of a petition:
Provided also that the Central Government shall not accord its sanction unless the company has been given a reasonable opportunity of making representations.
(5) A petition presented by the company for winding up before the Tribunal shall be admitted only if accompanied by a statement of affairs in such form and in such manner as may be prescribed.
(6) Before a petition for winding up of a company presented by a contingent or prospective creditor is admitted, the leave of the Tribunal shall be obtained for the admission of the petition and such leave shall not be granted, unless in the opinion of the Tribunal there is a prima facie case for the winding up of the company and until such security for costs has been given as the Tribunal thinks reasonable.
(7) A copy of the petition made under this section shall also be filed with the Registrar and the Registrar shall, without prejudice to any other provisions, submit his views to the Tribunal within sixty days of receipt of such petition.
Section 273 of Indian Companies Act 2013 "Powers of Tribunal"
(1) The Tribunal may, on receipt of
a petition for winding up under section 272 pass any of the
following orders, namely: -
(a) dismiss it, with or without costs;
(b) make any interim order as it thinks fit;
(c) appoint a provisional liquidator of the company till the making of a winding up order;
(d) make an order for the winding up of the company with or without costs; or
(e) any other order as it thinks fit:
Provided that an order under this sub-section shall be made within ninety days from the date of presentation of the petition:
Provided further that before appointing a provisional liquidator under clause (c), the Tribunal shall give notice to the company and afford a reasonable opportunity to it to make its representations, if any, unless for special reasons to be recorded in writing, the Tribunal thinks fit to dispense with such notice:
Provided also that the Tribunal shall not refuse to make a winding up order on the ground only that the assets of the company have been mortgaged for an amount equal to or in excess of those assets, or that the company has no assets.
(2) Where a petition is presented on the ground that it is just and equitable that the company should be wound up, the Tribunal may refuse to make an order of winding up, if it is of the opinion that some other remedy is available to the petitioners and that they are acting unreasonably in seeking to have the company wound up instead of pursuing the other remedy.