Section 188 of Indian Companies Act 2013 "Related party transactions"
(1) Except with the consent of the Board of Directors given by a resolution at a meeting of the Board and subject to such conditions as may be prescribed, no company shall enter into any contract or arrangement with a related party with respect to -
(a) sale, purchase or supply of any goods or materials;
(b) selling or otherwise disposing of, or buying, property of any kind;
(c) leasing of property of any kind;
(d) availing or rendering of any services;
(e) appointment of any agent for purchase or sale of goods, materials, services or property;
(f) such related party's appointment to any office or place of profit in the company, its subsidiary company or associate company; and
(g) underwriting the subscription of any securities or derivatives thereof, of the company:
Provided that no contract or arrangement, in the case of a company having a paid-up share capital of not less than such amount, or transactions not exceeding such sums, as may be prescribed, shall be entered into except with the prior approval of the company by a special resolution:
Provided further that no member of the company shall vote on such special resolution, to approve any contract or arrangement which may be entered into by the company, if such member is a related party:
Provided also that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to any transactions entered into by the company in its ordinary course of business other than transactions which are not on an arms length basis.
Explanation. - In this sub-section, -
(a) the expression office or place of profit means any office or place -
(i) where such office or place is held by a director, if the director holding it receives from the company anything by way of remuneration over and above the remuneration to which he is entitled as director, by way of salary, fee, commission, perquisites, any rent-free accommodation, or otherwise;
(ii) where such office or place is held by an individual other than a director or by any firm, private company or other body corporate, if the individual, firm, private company or body corporate holding it receives from the company anything by way of remuneration, salary, fee, commission, perquisites, any rent-free accommodation, or otherwise;
(b) the expression arms length transaction means a transaction between two related parties that is conducted as if they were unrelated, so that there is no conflict of interest.
(2) Every contract or arrangement entered into under sub-section (1) shall be referred to in the Boards report to the shareholders along with the justification for entering into such contract or arrangement.
(3) Where any contract or arrangement is entered into by a director or any other employee, without obtaining the consent of the Board or approval by a special resolution in the general meeting under sub-section (1) and if it is not ratified by the Board or, as the case may be, by the shareholders at a meeting within three months from the date on which such contract or arrangement was entered into, such contract or arrangement shall be voidable at the option of the Board and if the contract or arrangement is with a related party to any director, or is authorised by any other director, the directors concerned shall indemnify the company against any loss incurred by it.
(4) Without prejudice to anything contained in sub-section (3), it shall be open to the company to proceed against a director or any other employee who had entered into such contract or arrangement in contravention of the provisions of this section for recovery of any loss sustained by it as a result of such contract or arrangement.
Punishment for violation of Section 188 of Indian Companies Act 2013 regarding related party transactions
(5) Any director or any other employee of a company, who had entered into or authorised the contract or arrangement in violation of the provisions of this section shall, -
(i) in case of listed company, be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine which shall not be less than twenty-five thousand rupees but which may extend to five lakh rupees, or with both; and
(ii) in case of any other company, be punishable with fine which shall not be less than twenty-five thousand rupees but which may extend to five lakh rupees.
Section 189 of Indian Companies Act 2013 "Register of contracts or arrangements in which directors are interested"
(1) Every company shall keep one or more registers giving separately the particulars of all contracts or arrangements to which sub-section (2) of section 184 or section 188 applies, in such manner and containing such particulars as may be prescribed and after entering the particulars, such register or registers shall be placed before the next meeting of the Board and signed by all the directors present at the meeting.
(2) Every director or key managerial personnel shall, within a period of thirty days of his appointment, or relinquishment of his office, as the case may be, disclose to the company the particulars specified in sub-section (1) of section 184 relating to his concern or interest in the other associations which are required to be included in the register under that sub-section or such other information relating to himself as may be prescribed.
(3) The register referred to in sub-section (1) shall be kept at the registered office of the company and it shall be open for inspection at such office during business hours and extracts may be taken there from, and copies thereof as may be required by any member of the company shall be furnished by the company to such extent, in such manner, and on payment of such fees as may be prescribed.
(4) The register to be kept under this section shall also be produced at the commencement of every annual general meeting of the company and shall remain open and accessible during the continuance of the meeting to any person having the right to attend the meeting.
(5) Nothing contained in sub-section (1) shall apply to any contract or arrangement -
(a) for the sale, purchase or supply of any goods, materials or services if the value of such goods and materials or the cost of such services does not exceed five lakh rupees in the aggregate in any year; or
(b) by a banking company for the collection of bills in the ordinary course of its business.
Punishment for violation of Section 189 of Indian Companies act 2013 regarding maintaining of register of contracts in which director is interested
(6) Every director who fails to comply with the provisions of this section and the rules made there under shall be liable to a penalty of twenty-five thousand rupees.
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